Paving the Way for Hydrogen from Algae Enzymes

Seagriculture USA 2024
Hydrogen from Algae Enzymes

Thomas Happe, Rieke Haas and Ulf-Peter Apfel (from left) investigated the catalytic center of the algae in detail to better understand the requirements for hydrogen production. ©RUB, Marquard

Under certain conditions, some algae can produce hydrogen — a much sought-after green energy source. Its production takes place in the unique catalytic center of the unicellular algae and is only possible if certain cofactors of the relevant proteins are present.

Researchers at Ruhr University in Bochum, Germany, have identified how such a cofactor — the so-called hydrogen cluster — is assembled. Specifically, they describe in the journal JACS from May, 31, 2024 the previously unexplained role of the enzyme HydF, which is involved in the final steps of assembly.

Ligands on the cluster facilitate hydrogen production

“Iron-sulphur ([FeS]) clusters are essential, widely distributed protein cofactors that perform a wide variety of functions in the cell,” explains lead author Rieke Haas from the Photobiotechnology research group headed by Professor Thomas Happe at Ruhr University, Bochum. They are involved, for example, in catalyzing chemical reactions, transferring of electrons, sensing changing environmental conditions and synthesizing other complex metal cofactors.

The hydrogen-producing [FeFe] hydrogenases of algae also have an [FeS] cluster — a unique catalytic center. The fact that it facilitates the production of the green energy carrier, hydrogen, under mild reaction conditions makes it a key research priority for future-oriented energy production. “In addition to iron and sulphur atoms, its cofactor contains other ligands that make the conversion of hydrogen possible,” says Rieke Haas. “This means that the biosynthesis of the cofactor requires a complex sequence of different synthesis steps in order to provide all the necessary components.”

To do this, the organism needs a biosynthetic apparatus tailored to this process, which includes three enzymes that are responsible for the main synthesis steps. In particular, the role of the enzyme HydF, which is involved in the final assembly steps, has remained largely unexplained.

Which role do individual amino acids play?

The researchers used site-specific mutagenesis to gain new insights into how the cofactor precursor is integrated into the enzyme and how individual amino acids are involved in anchoring and synthesis. HydF plays a role during the synthesis of a ligand that is essential for the delivery of protons for hydrogen turnover.

Using methods such as hydrogen production measurements and ATR-FTIR spectroscopy, the team gathered a more detailed understanding of how HydF works and the role of specific amino acids. By providing insights into the previously unknown function of the maturation enzyme HydF, these new findings may help to shed light on the biosynthesis of the unique cofactor of [FeFe]-hydrogenases.

The research was funded by the German Research Foundation as part of the German Excellence Initiative (RESOLV Cluster of Excellence) and the Volkswagen Foundation.

All rights reserved. Permission required to reprint articles in their entirety. Must include copyright statement and live hyperlinks. Contact Algae Planet accepts unsolicited manuscripts for consideration, and takes no responsibility for the validity of claims made in submitted editorial.

Seagriculture USA 2024
Contact Phil Ganz



  • July 19, 2024: A three-year development effort, the Ethiopian Bio and Emerging Technology Institute — in collaboration with the Ministry of Innovation and Technology and the Oromia Agricultural Research Institute — has recently launched the nation’s first microalgae (spirulina) research and production center at the Adami Tulu Agriculture Center, from an investment of 8.2 million birr ($142,600 USD). READ MORE...
  • July 17, 2024: A study from the University of New Hampshire has found that integrating farmed shrimp with oysters and seaweed in integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA) systems significantly reduces nitrogen levels. This could make shrimp farming more responsible and potentially support the growth of the U.S. industry. READ MORE...
  • July 15, 2024: Atlantic Sea Farms, a Maine-based leader in farmed seaweed, has harvested a record-breaking 1.3 million pounds of farmed seaweed in the 2024 harvest season. The company, which partners with fishing families to farm kelp in Maine, Rhode Island, and Alaska, has expanded both the supply of domestic line-grown kelp, as well as the market for their traceable, regeneratively farmed products to American consumers, chefs, and CPG companies since 2019. READ MORE...
  • July 12, 2024: Researchers have created tiny, vehicle-like structures which can be maneuvered by microscopic algae. The algae are caught in baskets attached to the micromachines, which have been carefully designed to allow them enough room to continue swimming. Two types of vehicles were created: the “rotator,” which spins like a wheel, and the “scooter,” which was intended to move in a forward direction but in tests moved more surprisingly. READ MORE...

Algae Europe 2024

A Beginner’s Guide